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Creative problem solving process: connecting logic and creativity.

Many people may think of design as a purely creative process that relies on artistic inspiration. In actuality, design should be a marriage of logic and creativity and Creative Problem Solving (CPS) is the essential process that powers that marriage.

Creative Problem Solving (CPS) has always been a crucial part of my design journey, even before I knew it had a name. Looking back, history's brilliant minds and inventors have employed CPS long before any formal process existed. Many of humanity's remarkable scientific and technological advancements appear to be spontaneous sparks of creative genius, but they were actually the result of logical problem-solving processes. The extraordinary achievements of physicists like Newton, Einstein, and Hawking, as well as entrepreneurial visionaries like Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, all owe something to CPS. Today, CPS is a more structured and organized approach that can lead to breakthroughs and help designers overcome challenges. When we closely examine CPS, we realize it is an essential tool for successful design.

The Creative Problem Solving process can be defined in many ways and have a wide variety of steps depending on who you ask, but the core principles are generally the same:

  1. Identification: Start by clarifying and identifying a specific problem. Define your objectives or issue that needs to be solved-- this may or may not include a research phase. Then, create open-ended questions or “creative challenges” derived from the larger problem. These usually start with “What if…?” “How can I…?” “What happens if…?”.
  2. Ideation (divergent thinking): Generate ideas and solutions to a problem. Brainstorm as many ideas as possible to answer the questions from the previous step. It is important to stay within divergent thinking, that is, to avoid judgment on the validity of the ideas. Issuing early judgment could prematurely eliminate ideas that have the potential to lead to a viable solution.
  3. Evaluation (convergent thinking): Evaluate the potential solutions. This is where convergent thinking, problem solving skills, and practical judgment should be used to select the best ideas/solutions. Some solutions may need further development for strengthening.
  4. Implementation: Implement and test the selected solution(s). If the problem exists or a new problem arises you may need to return to previous steps.

This process of thinking is especially successful in the design field. In fact, over time I’ve found CPS to be inherent and almost unavoidable in any type of design. After all, the main goal of graphic design is to provide creative, new solutions to solve specific problems. This is what separates design from the fine arts. While we still strive to be creative and groundbreaking like any artist, the goal is to create functional work within the parameters of the client. No matter the field of design or scope of the problem, CPS often becomes the basic tool for finding and implementing logical, creative solutions.

In practice, clients often ask for a new brand that conveys multiple characteristics, stands out from competitors, and has a minimalistic, bold, and timeless look. This request presents a big challenge with many smaller challenges within it. While the final brand should seem effortlessly inspired, the design process actually involves a logical sequence of decisions. In my experience, I've noticed that following the steps of CPS leads to more creative and artistic solutions. Using the example of brand identity, let's explore how the remaining CPS steps can guide us toward a successful creative solution. To come up with a successful brand strategy we must, at the very least:

  1. Identify a problem: How can a client best represent their internal values and goods or services? How can a client stand out from their competition?
  2. Generate ideas/solutions: Use divergent thinking to brainstorm a large number of concepts for a logo, typography, brand elements, brand colors, etc.
  3. Evaluate the potential solution: Use convergent thinking to select the best concepts to best communicate the client’s needs and messaging.
  4. Implement the solution: Build the brand and collateral based on the generated solutions and test whether it resonates appropriately with the intended audience.

The CPS process can be used not only for large projects like brand identity creation, but also smaller challenges such as fitting content in a provided space. You can see how the process could be implemented with a problem as small as “this content won’t fit.” Quickly, we’d generate ideas such as; using a different typeface, eliminating a photo, making the type size smaller, adjusting the margins, etc.

Even when we aren’t intentionally following the formal steps of CPS, its core principles are almost inescapable in design. It’s this marriage of logic and creativity that made a career in graphic design so appealing to me in the first place. When we recognize the CPS principles and consciously follow the process, we can utilize the full power of our creative minds. Whether we’re trying to redefine the laws of physics or implement a successful publication layout, CPS is the engine that drives us to creative, new solutions.

(Source: The CPS Process and Learner’s Model by the Creative Education Foundation, based on the work of Alex Osborn and Sid Parnes. Adapted by G.J. Puccio, M. Mance, M.C. Murdock, B. Miller, J. Vehar, R. Firestein, S. Thurber, and D. Nielsen (2011).)